According to the information contained in the authoritative source “Yoga Sutras”, the sage Patanjali, yama and niyama are the first two of the eight stages of ashtanga yoga. Despite the fact that the literature has many yama and niyama values, it can be expressed in the following way: the yama is a complex of relationships to the outer things in a society, and niyama is a relationship with itself.
Yama and Niyama – 10 steps to perfection
5 yamas in the “Yoga Sutras” of Patanjali (ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, aparigraha)
1. In translation, the word “himsa” means “cruelty”, “injustice”. A prefix of a is a negation. However, it should be noted that ahimsa is not just a lack of violence.
Ahimsa includes kindness, friendliness, attentiveness, and reasonable treatment of the entire surrounding space.
2. Satya is the next yama and is a principle of truthfulness. But the truth needs to be able to speak correctly. The human being must take into account the consequences of the truth on his surroundings. If the truth is harmed, it is better to be silent. “Mahabharata” say, “Speak the truth. Don’t got unpleasant truth. Don’t lie, even if the lie is pleasant.”
3. The third principle of the yama is asteya. “Steja” is translated as stealing. Asteya, as opposed, teaches us not to take anything that doesn’t belong to us right. By applying the principle of asteya in our lives, we also do not have to exploit and benefit from the people who trust and rely on us.
4. The next principle is brahmacharya. This word is the root of the “Char” (movement) and the “Brahma” (true). Brahmacharya needs to be understood as moving to truth, to the point. Often this word is used only as “abstinence” (especially sexual). In fact, Brahmacharya forms a relationship that is devoid of the excessively sensual pleasures that open up every understanding of the highest truth.
5. The last principle of the yama is aparigraha. “Parigraha” can be translated as “take”, “missed”. Aprarigraha, however, implies that we should only use the essentials and not use the situation to make the maximum profit we do not know where to use and which remains unused.
5 principles of Niyamas (shaucha, santosha, tapas, svadhyaya, ishvarapranidhana)
1. Shaucha. This principle relates to purity, both internal and external. External purity means elementary morality. Internal purity is connected both to human health, to the function of body bodies, and also to mental purity. In maintaining the quality of internal purity, the practice of hatha yoga asanas and pranayama is fundamental.
2. Santosha (ability to settle for what is available, modesty). The true meaning of santosha is accepting everything as it is.
3. Tapas is the third niyama and represents activities aimed at the maintenance of the body in an ideal form. This and the practice of asanas together with pranayama and proper nutrition, as well as the correct way of thinking.
4. Fourth niyama is svadhyaya. “Sva” means “own”, “adhyaya” is translated as “learning”, “research”. That is, svadhyaya means studying oneself.
5. The last niyama is ishvarapranidhana. The term “ishvarapranidhana” means presenting all the actions and their results to God.
Using these principles of the yama and niyama, man does not allow unnecessary leakages of the energy of his life and forms the optimum conditions for the full implementation of all evolutionary processes.